Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
https://iberoamjmed.com/article/doi/10.53986/ibjm.2023.0007
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Original article

Quality of life deterioration and associated factors in prenatal care pregnant women: assessment with the WHOQOL-BREF scale

Deterioro de la calidad de vida y factores asociados en gestantes en control prenatal: evaluación con la escala WHOQOL-BREF

Álvaro Monterrosa-Castro, Isabella Morales-Castellar, Alix Rodelo-Correa, Angélica Monterrosa-Blanco

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Abstract

Introduction: Quality of life is a set of situations that contribute to people's well-being. In pregnant women, it is necessary to explore the emotional, social and physical aspects. Few studies in the Latin American population explore the quality of life of pregnant women. The objective was to establish the frequency of deterioration of the physical, psychological, social and environmental quality of life and to identify the associated factors in pregnant women residing in cities of the Colombian Caribbean who attended prenatal consultation.
Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 509 pregnant women who performed daily activities and participated voluntarily and anonymously after signing informed consent. They filled out a form that explored sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and applied the WHOQOL-BREF scale, identifying the poor quality of life. Adjusted logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between quality of life (dependent variable) and biopsychosocial factors (independent variables).
Results: The age of the participants was 26.8 ± 6.2 years. In 250 (49.1%) physical or mental deterioration was identified, in 281 (55.2%) deterioration of the social relationship and in 270 (53.0%) of the environmental relationship. Diabetes OR:6.01[95%CI:1.20-18.42], depression OR:4.71[95%CI:1-20-18.42], living in a rural area OR:2.96[95%CI :1.78-4.91], anguish with pregnancy OR:2.87[95%CI:1.65-5.01], financial problems OR:2.61[95%CI:1.54-4.40 ] or couple OR:2.60[95%CI:1.03-6.69], were associated with impaired quality of life (p<0.01). Being cohabiting, compared to being alone, and being a student/employee versus a housewife, were associated with a lower possibility of deterioration in quality of life (p<0.01).
Conclusions: Deterioration of each quality of life domain was identified in half of the pregnant women and several biopsychosocial factors were significantly associated. Antenatal care protocols should provide guidelines for intervention on obstetric and non-obstetric factors that impair quality of life. It is necessary to highlight deficiencies in the exploration of the mental, social and environmental health of pregnant women.

Keywords

Quality of life; Pregnancy; Women health; Mental health; Prenatal care; Obstetrics; Maternal health

Resumen

Introducción: La calidad de vida es un conjunto de situaciones que contribuyen al bienestar de las personas. En las mujeres embarazadas es necesario explorar los aspectos emocionales, sociales y físicos. Son pocos los estudios en población latinoamericana que exploran la calidad de vida de las gestantes. El objetivo fue establecer la frecuencia de deterioro de la calidad de vida física, psicológica, social y ambiental e identificar los factores asociados en gestantes residentes en ciudades del Caribe colombiano que acudieron a consulta prenatal.
Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 509 gestantes que realizaban actividades cotidianas y participaban de forma voluntaria y anónima previa firma del consentimiento informado. Llenaron un formulario que exploró características sociodemográficas y clínicas y aplicaron la escala WHOQOL-BREF, identificando la mala calidad de vida. Se realizó una regresión logística ajustada para estimar la asociación entre calidad de vida (variable dependiente) y factores biopsicosociales (variables independientes).
Resultados: La edad de los participantes fue de 26,8 ± 6,2 años. En 250 (49,1%) se identificó deterioro físico o mental, en 281 (55,2%) deterioro de la relación social y en 270 (53,0%) de la relación ambiental. Diabetes OR:6.01[IC95%:1.20-18.42], depresión OR:4.71[IC95%:1-20-18.42], vivir en zona rural OR:2.96[IC95% :1.78-4.91], angustia con embarazo OR:2,87[IC95%:1,65-5,01], problemas financieros OR:2,61[IC95%:1,54-4,40] o pareja OR:2,60[IC95%:1,03-6,69], se asociaron con deterioro de la calidad de vida (p<0,01). Ser conviviente, comparado con estar solo, y ser estudiante/empleado versus ama de casa, se asoció con una menor posibilidad de deterioro en la calidad de vida (p<0,01).
Conclusiones: Se identificó deterioro de cada dominio de la calidad de vida en la mitad de las gestantes y varios factores biopsicosociales se asociaron significativamente. Los protocolos de atención prenatal deben proporcionar pautas para la intervención sobre los factores obstétricos y no obstétricos que deterioran la calidad de vida. Es necesario resaltar las deficiencias en la exploración de la salud mental, social y ambiental de las gestantes.

Palabras clave

Calidad de vida; Embarazo; Salud de la mujer; Salud mental; Cuidado prenatal; Obstetricia; Salud maternal

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Submitted date:
11/13/2022

Reviewed date:
01/05/2023

Accepted date:
01/16/2023

Publication date:
01/16/2023

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