Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
https://iberoamjmed.com/article/doi/10.53986/ibjm.2022.0038
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Review

From a laboratory to the wearables: a review on history and evolution of electrocardiogram

Del laboratorio a la práctica: una revisión sobre la historia y evolución del electrocardiograma

Rony Vincent

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Abstract

The development of electrocardiography, one of the top scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century, occurred in the field of cardiology. The history of the ECG began long before its invention, with the advent of the study of electricity in the medical field. The idea of electrophysiology and Waller's initial recording of the ‘electrogram’ encouraged Willem Einthoven to develop new string galvanometers and turn this remarkable physiologic occurrence into a vital clinical recording tool. It has progressed from Einthoven's innovation to wearable technology. In the first part of the 20th century, a number of inventive people achieved a remarkable succession of discoveries and advancements that led to the development of the 12-lead ECG as we know it today. It went further than that. The evolution of science and technology over the years has allowed for continual development in terms of usefulness, ranging from five operators to one operator meant to record the ECG trace, and mobility, ranging from around 300 Kg to roughly around 1 Kg. Electrocardiographs in minimized form now exist thanks to the modern era of digitalization. We will go over the significant processes in the development of the ECG in this article.

Keywords

Electrocardiography; Electrocardiogram; Electrophysiology; Cardiology; History

Resumen

El desarrollo de la electrocardiografía, uno de los principales avances científicos del siglo XX, se produjo en el campo de la cardiología. La historia del ECG comenzó mucho antes de su invención, con el advenimiento del estudio de la electricidad en el campo médico. La idea de la electrofisiología y el registro inicial del "electrograma" de Waller animó a Willem Einthoven a desarrollar nuevos galvanómetros de hilo y convertir este acontecimiento fisiológico notable en una herramienta de registro clínico vital. Ha progresado desde la innovación de Einthoven hasta la tecnología portátil. En la primera parte del siglo XX, varias personas ingeniosas lograron una notable sucesión de descubrimientos y avances que condujeron al desarrollo del ECG de 12 derivaciones tal como lo conocemos hoy. Fue más allá que eso. La evolución de la ciencia y la tecnología a lo largo de los años ha permitido un desarrollo continuo en términos de utilidad, que va desde cinco operadores a un operador destinado a registrar el trazo de ECG, y la movilidad, que va desde alrededor de 300 kg hasta aproximadamente 1 kg. Los electrocardiógrafos en forma minimizada ahora existen gracias a la era moderna de la digitalización. Repasaremos los procesos significativos en el desarrollo del ECG en este artículo.

Palabras clave

Electrocardiografía; Electrocardiograma; Electrofisiología; Cardiología; Historia

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Submitted date:
08/05/2022

Reviewed date:
09/02/2022

Accepted date:
09/06/2022

Publication date:
09/06/2022

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