Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Original article

Public opinion and practice towards COVID-19 pandemic in Libya

Opinión pública y práctica frente a la pandemia de COVID-19 en Libia

Sara A. Almeraash, Abdussalam A. M. Amara

Downloads: 0
Views: 628


Introduction: World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic, and like any global health crisis at its beginning, need a commitment to take the necessary precautions due to its spread among people before and during the presence of vaccine or drug. This study aims to assess public opinion and practice of Libyan community in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional online study was conducted among Libyans between Sep. 15th, and Oct. 29th, 2020 using a developed-design questionnaire consisting of 23 questions assessing the aim of the study. 2305, who agreed to participate, was involved in the present study.
Results: The response rate of Libyan regions, the west, east, middle and south areas, was 80.0%, 8.7%, 10.0 % and 1.3%, respectively. The majority were female (63.1%), with mostly in the 20-50 years’ age group (86.6%). The high level of education was university graduate (71.3%). The opinion average rate of participants was 33.2 % disagree and 26.4 % strongly disagree towards ban measures issued by authorities. Findings reveal good practice of applying preventive measures (always, an average rate of 35.1%). The relationship between opinion score and the participant’s demographic data show highly significant difference with the educational level (P = 0.002), but no differences found with residence (P = 0.183), with age (P = 0.212), and with gender (P = 0.313). With regard to the practice score, a significant difference was existed with gender (P = 0.029), age (P = 0.000), level of education (P = 0.013) and residence (P = 0.000).
Conclusions: Libyan people has an acceptable level of awareness and opinion in applying the necessary precautionary measures towards COVID-19 pandemic, where prevention practices are influenced by level of education, residence, age and gender.


Awareness; Coronavirus; COVID-19; Libyan people; Practice


Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la COVID-19 como una pandemia y, como cualquier crisis de salud global en sus inicios, es necesario el compromiso de tomar las precauciones necesarias debido a su propagación entre las personas antes y durante la presencia de una vacuna o fármaco. Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la opinión pública y la práctica de la comunidad libia en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19.
Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en línea entre libios entre el 15 de septiembre y el 29 de octubre de 2020 utilizando un cuestionario de diseño desarrollado que consta de 23 preguntas que evalúan el objetivo del estudio. 2305 sujetos accedieron a participar en el presente estudio.
Resultados: La tasa de respuesta de las regiones libias, las áreas oeste, este, medio y sur, fue del 80,0%, 8,7%, 10,0% y 1,3%, respectivamente. La mayoría eran mujeres (63,1%), en su mayoría en el grupo de edad de 20 a 50 años (86,6%). El nivel de educación alto fue de titulado universitario (71,3%). La tasa promedio de opinión de los participantes fue del 33,2% en desacuerdo y del 26,4% en total desacuerdo con las medidas de prohibición emitidas por las autoridades. Los hallazgos revelan buenas prácticas de aplicación de medidas preventivas (siempre, una tasa promedio del 35,1%). La relación entre la puntuación de opinión y los datos demográficos del participante muestra una diferencia altamente significativa con el nivel educativo (P = 0,002), pero no se encontraron diferencias con la residencia (P = 0,183), con la edad (P = 0,212) y con el género (P = 0,313). Con respecto al puntaje de práctica, existió una diferencia significativa con el género (P = 0.029), la edad (P = 0.000), el nivel de educación (P = 0.013) y la residencia (P = 0.000).
Conclusiones: El pueblo libio tiene un nivel aceptable de conciencia y opinión en la aplicación de las medidas de precaución necesarias frente a la pandemia de COVID-19, donde las prácticas de prevención están influenciadas por el nivel de educación, residencia, edad y género.

Palabras clave

Conciencia; Coronavirus; COVID-19; Pueblo libio; Práctica


1. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020;579(7798):270-3. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7.
2. Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat Med. 2020;26(4):450-2. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9.
3. Eurosurveillance Editorial Team. Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(12):2003121. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.12.2003261.
4. Centers for Disease, Control and Prevention. Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html (accessed July 2021).
5. Kaur KK, Allahbadia G, Singh M. A comprehensive review on epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the novel coronavirus syndrome – COVID-19. Iberoam J Med. 2020;2(2):110-23. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3757110.
6. Gao H, Hu R, Yin L, Yuan X, Tang H, Luo L, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Chinese public with respect to coronavirus disease (COVID-19): an online cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1816. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09961-2.
7. Amara AAM. The potential perspective of COVID-19 vaccines. Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2021:1(1):1-2. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5171366.
8. Algoul MS. COVID-19 in Libya: situation and special vision. Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2021:1(2):3-4. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5171082.
9. National Centre for Disease Control-Libya (NCDC). Coronavirus (COVID-19) situation. Available from: https://ncdc.org.ly/Ar/situation-of-corona (accessed July 2021).
10. Bredan A, Bakoush O. COVID-19 epidemic in Libya. Libyan J Med. 2021;16(1):1871798. doi: 10.1080/19932820.2021.1871798.
11. Cai HL, Zhu YX, Lei LB. Novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic-related knowledge, behaviors and psychology status among college students and their family members and friends: an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Chin J Public Health. 2020:36(2):152-5. doi: 10.11847/zgggws1128106.
12. Geldsetzer P. Knowledge and Perceptions of COVID-19 Among the General Public in the United States and the United Kingdom: A Cross-sectional Online Survey. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(2):157-60. doi: 10.7326/M20-0912.
13. Papagiannis D, Malli F, Raptis DG, Papathanasiou IV, Fradelos EC, Daniil Z, et al. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices towards New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of Health Care Professionals in Greece
before the Outbreak Period. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(14):4925. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17144925.
14. Gallè F, Sabella EA, Da Molin G, De Giglio O, Caggiano G, Di Onofrio V, et al. Understanding Knowledge and Behaviors Related to CoViD-19 Epidemic in Italian Undergraduate Students: The EPICO Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(10):3481. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17103481.
15. Mansour M, Alsaadawi S, Benjaber A, Ben Issa N, Abdulsamad M. Evaluating the effect of COVID-19 on community pharmacist’s practice. Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2021:1(2):51-7. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.5171346.
16. Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ, Liu XG, Li WT, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1745-52. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45221.
17. Patel H, Pčolkina K, Strazdina K, Viberga I, Sherman SM, Tincello DG, et al. Awareness of HPV infection and attitudes toward HPV vaccination among Latvian adolescents. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017;137(2):138-44. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12117.
18. Khan TM, Buksh MA, Rehman IU, Saleem A. Knowledge, attitudes, and perception towards human papillomavirus among university students in Pakistan. Papillomavirus Res. 2016;2:122-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pvr.2016.06.001.
19. Ursachi G, Horodnic IA, Zait A. How reliable are measurement scales? External factors with indirect influence on reliability estimators, Procedia Econ. 2015:20:679-86. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00123-9.
20. Abuhammad S, Alzoubi KH, Khabour O. Fear of COVID-19 and stigmatization towards infected people among Jordanian people. Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(4):e13899. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.13899.
21. Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102083. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083.
22. Huang F, Ding H, Liu Z, Wu P, Zhu M, Li A, et al. How fear and collectivism influence public's preventive intention towards COVID-19 infection: a study based on big data from the social media. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1707. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09674-6.
23. Ahmed Aziz KM, Othman A, Alqahtani WA, Azhar S. Factors affecting SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 Pandemic, including Zoonotic, Human Transmission and Chain of Infection. Reducing Public health Risk by Serum Antibody Testing, Avoiding Screening in Unhygienic Places and False PCR Reporting. A Scientific Review. Iberoam J Med. 2021;3(2):138- 160. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.4599718.
24. Yunusa I, Iloanusi S, Mgbere O, Iloanusi NR, Ajayi AI, Essien EJ. Public opinion regarding government response to COVID-19: case study of a large commercial city in Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2021;38:282. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2021.38.282.26361.
25. Al-Hazmi A, Gosadi I, Somily A, Alsubaie S, Bin Saeed A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of secondary schools and university students toward Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2018;25(3):572-7. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.032.
26. Pal M, Bulcha MR, Banu MG, Ketchakmadze D. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic Remains a Global Public Health Threat. Iberoam J Med. 2021;3(3):264-270. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.4892651.
27. Farhana KM. Knowledge and Perception Towards Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Bangladesh. Int Res J Bus Soc Sci. 2020:6:76-9. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3578477.
28. Ajilore K, Atakiti I. College students’ knowledge , attitudes and adherence to public service announcements on Ebola in Nigeria: Suggestions for improving future Ebola prevention education programmes. Health Educ J. 2017;76:1–13. doi: 10.1177/0017896917710969.
29. Moradzadeh R, Nazari J, Shamsi M, Amini S. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Toward Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the Central Area of Iran: A Population-Based Study. Front Public Health. 2020;8:599007. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.599007.
30. Xu H, Gonzalez Mendez MJ, Guo L, Chen Q, Zheng L, Chen P, et al. Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes Relating to the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Different Populations in Central China: Cross-Sectional Survey. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(10):e22628. doi: 10.2196/22628.
31. Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ, Liu XG, Li WT, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1745-1752. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45221.
32. Fukuda Y, Ando S, Fukuda K. Knowledge and preventive actions toward COVID-19, vaccination intent, and health literacy among educators in Japan:
An online survey. PLoS One. 2021;16(9):e0257552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257552.

Submitted date:

Reviewed date:

Accepted date:

Publication date:

616fd27da953952c503a9263 iberoamericanjm Articles
Links & Downloads

Iberoam J Med

Share this page
Page Sections