Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Original article

The impact and effectiveness of new coronavirus vaccine on disease outcome worldwide

El impacto y la eficacia de la nueva vacuna contra el coronavirus en el resultado de la enfermedad en todo el mundo

Tasneem A. Alkout, Abdulhamid M. Alkout

Downloads: 16
Views: 2075


Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly around the world caused serious respiratory disease leading to death, therefore vaccine is the effective way to control this pandemic. Scientists tried to produce safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in record time and vaccination program started in December 2020. The aim of this study to determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine on COVID-19 disease.
Materials and methods: The COVID-19 cases data of post-vaccination and pre-vaccination were collected from Worldmeter website, and the percentage of vaccinated people data obtained from Statistics and Research Coronavirus Vaccinations. The statistical analyses performed with SPSS software version 16.0.
Results: The results showed countries with higher percentage of full dose vaccinated people correlated strongly with decrease of death and the severity of the disease among their infected population. This study showed that different vaccine mechanism against SARS-CoV-2 virus of more than 23.5% of vaccination people with full dose vaccine is effective to decrease death and serious symptoms of COVID-19 disease and increasing the recovery rate.
Conclusions: Different mechanism type of full dose vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is effective to decrease death and serious symptoms of COVID-19 disease with increasing recovery rate. It was difficult to assess the effect of single dose alone, therefore more studies are recommended to assess the effect of single dose vaccine with COVID-19 disease outcome and to determine if the vaccine will accelerate the period of recovery rate and reduce the infectious period time in each country.


Full vaccine; Total vaccine; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; mRNA vaccine; Vector vaccine; Inactivated virus vaccine


Introducción: El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo por coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) se está propagando rápidamente por todo el mundo provocando una enfermedad respiratoria grave que conduce a la muerte, por lo que la vacuna es la forma eficaz de controlar esta pandemia. Los científicos intentaron producir vacunas contra el SARS-CoV-2 seguras y efectivas en un tiempo récord y el programa de vacunación comenzó en diciembre de 2020. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el impacto de la vacuna contra el SARS-CoV-2 en la enfermedad COVID-19.
Materiales y métodos: Los datos de casos de COVID-19 de posvacunación y prevacunación se recopilaron del sitio web de Worldmeter, y el porcentaje de datos de personas vacunadas obtenidos de Estadísticas e Investigación de Vacunas por Coronavirus. Los análisis estadísticos realizados con el software SPSS versión 16.0.
Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que los países con un mayor porcentaje de personas vacunadas con la dosis completa se correlacionaron fuertemente con la disminución de la muerte y la gravedad de la enfermedad entre su población infectada. Este estudio mostró que el mecanismo de vacunación diferente contra el virus SARS-CoV-2 de más del 23.5% de personas vacunadas con la vacuna de dosis completa es eficaz para disminuir la muerte y los síntomas graves de la enfermedad COVID-19 y aumentar la tasa de recuperación.
Conclusiones: Diferentes tipos de mecanismos de vacuna de dosis completa contra el SARS-CoV-2 son efectivos para disminuir la muerte y los síntomas graves de la enfermedad COVID-19 con una tasa de recuperación creciente. Fue difícil evaluar el efecto de la dosis única sola, por lo que se recomiendan más estudios evaluar el efecto de la vacuna de dosis única con el resultado de la enfermedad COVID-19 y determinar si la vacuna acelerará el período de recuperación y reducirá el período de infección en cada país.

Palabras clave

Vacuna completa; Vacuna total; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vacuna de ARNm; Vacuna de vector; Vacuna de virus inactivado


1. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-513. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.
2. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Yet al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
3. Gold JAW, Wong KK, Szablewski CM, Patel PR, Rossow J, da Silva J, et al. Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Adult Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 - Georgia, March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(18):545-50. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6918e1.
4. Haleem A, Javaid M, Vaishya R. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life. Curr Med Res Pract. 2020;10(2):78-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011.
5. Wold health organization. Advice for the public: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public (accessed August 2021).
6. Parker EPK, Shrotri M, Kampmann B. Keeping track of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pipeline. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020;20(11):650. doi: 10.1038/s41577-020-00455-1.
7. World Health Organization. COVID-19 vaccine tracker and landscape. Availabe from: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/draft-landscape-of-covid-19-candidate-vaccines. (accessed March 2021).
8. Gao Q, Bao L, Mao H, Wang L, Xu K, Yang M, et al. Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2. Science. 2020;369(6499):77-81. doi: 10.1126/science.abc1932.
9. Yan Y, Pang Y, Lyu Z, Wang R, Wu X, You C, et al. The COVID-19 Vaccines: Recent Development, Challenges and Prospects. Vaccines (Basel). 2021;9(4):349. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9040349.
10. Yuan P, Ai P, Liu Y, Ai Z, Wang Y, Cao W, et al. Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2020:2020.11.03.20224998. doi: 10.1101/2020.11.03.20224998.
11. Revicki DA, Frank L. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation in the real world. Effectiveness versus efficacy studies. Pharmacoeconomics. 1999;15(5):423-34. doi: 10.2165/00019053-199915050-00001.
12. Centers for disease control and prevention. COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness Research. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/effectiveness-research/protocols.html (accessed August 2021).
13. World Health Organization. Guidance on conducting vaccine effectiveness evaluations in the setting of new SARS-CoV-2 variants: interim guidance, 22 July 2021: addendum to Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness: interim guidance. Avaialbe from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/343173 (accessed August 2021).
14. Alkout TA, Alkout AM. ABO blood groups among Coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Iberoam J Med. 2020;2(4):268-74. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3893256.
15. Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccinations. Available from: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations (accessed August 2021).
16. World Health Organization. World Health Organization Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Available from: https://covid19.who.int (accessed March 2021).
17. Chung H, He S, Nasreen S, Sundaram ME, Buchan SA, Wilson SE, et al. Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 covid-19 vaccines against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe covid-19 outcomes in Ontario, Canada: test negative design study. BMJ. 2021;374:n1943. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1943.
18. Public Health England. Impact of COVID-19 vaccines on mortality in England: December 2020 to March 2021. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/att
achment_data/file/977249/PHE_COVID-19_vaccine_impact_on_mortality_March.pdf (accessed August 2021).
19. Moline HL, Whitaker M, Deng L, et al. Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines in Preventing Hospitalization Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years — COVID-NET, 13 States, February–April 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1088-93. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7032e3
20. Henry DA, Jones MA, Stehlik P, Glasziou PP. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines: findings from real world studies. Med J Aust. 2021;215(4):149-51.e1. doi: 10.5694/mja2.51182.
21. Bante A, Mersha A, Tesfaye A, Tsegaye B, Shibiru S, Ayele G, et al. Adherence with COVID-19 Preventive Measures and Associated Factors Among Residents of Dirashe District, Southern Ethiopia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2021;15:237-49. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S293647.
22. Ditekemena JD, Mavoko HM, Obimpeh M, Van Hees S, Siewe Fodjo JN, Nkamba DM, et al. Adherence to COVID-19 Prevention Measures in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Results of Two Consecutive Online Surveys. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(5):2525. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18052525.
23. Petherick A, Goldszmidt R, Andrade EB, Furst R, Hale T, Pott A, et al. A worldwide assessment of changes in adherence to COVID-19 protective behaviours and hypothesized pandemic fatigue. Nat Hum Behav. 2021;5(9):1145-60. doi: 10.1038/s41562-021-01181-x.
24. Patel MK, Bergeri I, Bresee JS, Cowling BJ, Crowcroft NS, Fahmy K, et al. Evaluation of post-introduction COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness: Summary of interim guidance of the World Health Organization. Vaccine. 2021;39(30):4013-24. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.05.099.
25. Griffin S. Covid-19: AstraZeneca vaccine prevents 79% of symptomatic disease and 100% of severe disease, US study finds. BMJ. 2021;372:n793. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n793.
26. United States food and drug administration (FDA). FDA Approves First COVID-19 Vaccine: Approval Signifies Key Achievement for Public Health. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-covid-19-vaccine (accessed August 2021).
27. Centers for disease control and prevention. Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine Overview and Safety. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/Moderna.html (accessed August 2021).
28. Self WH, Tenforde MW, Rhoads JP, Gaglani M, Gine AA, Douin DJ, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech, and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) Vaccines in Preventing COVID-19 Hospitalizations Among Adults Without Immunocompromising Conditions — United States, March–August 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1337–43. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7038e1.
29. Yassi A, Grant JM, Lockhart K, Barker S, Sprague S, Okpani AI, et al. Infection control, occupational and public health measures including mRNA-based vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infections to protect healthcare workers from variants of concern: A 14-month observational study using surveillance data. PLoS One. 2021;16(7):e0254920. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254920.
30. Centers for disease control and prevention. Science Brief: COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/science/science-briefs/fully-vaccinated-people.html (accessed Sept 2021).

Submitted date:

Reviewed date:

Accepted date:

Publication date:

616e838aa95395362731c4b3 iberoamericanjm Articles
Links & Downloads

Iberoam J Med

Share this page
Page Sections