Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
https://iberoamjmed.com/article/doi/10.5281/zenodo.5034577
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Case Report

Posterior midline cleft of the atlas – a crucial anatomical variation in vertebral fractures

Hendidura posterior de la línea media del atlas - una variación anatómica crucial en las fracturas vertebrales

Serghei Covantev, Rasul Uzdenov, Kseniya Zabudskaya, Olga Belic

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Abstract

The anatomy of the first vertebra, namely atlas, has significant clinical implications. Atlas is situated between the occipital bone and the second cervical vertebra (axis) and is one of the main points of head movement. Most congenital anomalies of the vertebra are diagnosed incidentally during imaging investigations and can be associated with cervical spine anomalies. The neurological symptoms may include weakness in the four limbs, acute neurologic deficits such as transient quadriparesis, paraparesis, Lhermitte's sign, chronic neck pain, and headache. This anomaly is also commonly seen in gonadal dysgenesis, Klippel-Feil syndrome, Arnold-Chiari malformations, and Turner and Down syndrome. Unlike other variations, which arise due to disturbances of ossification posterior midline clefts of the atlas, are different since they are a developmental failure of chondrogenesis. We therefore present an anatomical case and analysis of the literature about posterior arch clefts of atlas.

Keywords

Developmental defect; First cervical vertebra; Anatomy

Resumen

La anatomía de la primera vértebra, a saber, el atlas, tiene importantes implicaciones clínicas. Atlas está situado entre el hueso occipital y la segunda vértebra cervical (axis) y es uno de los principales puntos de movimiento de la cabeza. La mayoría de las anomalías congénitas de las vértebras se diagnostican de manera incidental durante las investigaciones por imágenes y pueden asociarse con anomalías de la columna cervical. Los síntomas neurológicos pueden incluir debilidad en las cuatro extremidades, déficits neurológicos agudos como cuadriparesia transitoria, paraparesia, signo de Lhermitte, dolor de cuello crónico y dolor de cabeza. Esta anomalía también se observa con frecuencia en la disgenesia gonadal, el síndrome de Klippel-Feil, las malformaciones de Arnold-Chiari y el síndrome de Turner y Down. A diferencia de otras variaciones, que surgen debido a alteraciones de la osificación, las hendiduras de la línea media posterior del atlas, son diferentes ya que son una falla en el desarrollo de la condrogénesis. Por tanto, presentamos un caso anatómico y un análisis de la literatura sobre las hendiduras del arco posterior del atlas.

Palabras clave

Defecto de desarrollo; Primera vértebra cervical; Anatomía

References

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Submitted date:
06/15/2021

Reviewed date:
06/22/2021

Accepted date:
06/26/2021

Publication date:
06/26/2021

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