Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
https://iberoamjmed.com/article/doi/10.5281/zenodo.4892651
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Review

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic Remains a Global Public Health Threat

La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) sigue siendo una amenaza para la salud pública mundial

Mahendra Pal, Mati Roba Bulcha, Milsan Getu Banu, Dimitri Ketchakmadze

Downloads: 3
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Abstract

Recently, an upsurge in the incidence of several emerging infectious diseases is causing great challenges to the health professionals throughout the globe. Since early 2020, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), now a pandemic, is hitting the world severely. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causative agent of COVID-19, gain entry through the respiratory systems (nasopharyngeal) route causing infection. This disease is reported from all continents except Antarctica and it most commonly affects the lungs rather than the other organs. In affected person, pneumonia, cough, sore throat, dyspnea, fever, headache, and rhinorrhea is the main symptoms of COVID-19. There are different investigation methods to diagnose a patient suspected of COVID-19 like radiography and different laboratory technique like RT-PCR, which remains the investigation of choice. Social distancing, practicing hand hygiene, and use of facemask are mandatory to prevent the disease. Many of the drug trials are underway with the recent FDA approval of remdesivir. Very recently, immunization programme against COVID-19 is going on in many countries of the world. However, the efficacy and safety of the vaccines are not yet fully established.

Keywords

Coronavirus; COVID-19; Emerging infectious disease; Public health; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2

Resumen

Recientemente, un aumento en la incidencia de varias enfermedades infecciosas emergentes está causando grandes desafíos a los profesionales de la salud en todo el mundo. Desde principios de 2020, un brote de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), ahora una pandemia, está afectando al mundo de forma severa. El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), agente causante de COVID-19, ingresa a través de la ruta del sistema respiratorio (nasofaríngeo) causando infección. Esta enfermedad se informa en todos los continentes excepto en la Antártida y afecta más comúnmente a los pulmones que a otros órganos. En la persona afectada, la neumonía, la tos, el dolor de garganta, la disnea, la fiebre, el dolor de cabeza y la rinorrea son los principales síntomas del COVID-19. Existen diferentes métodos de investigación para diagnosticar a un paciente con sospecha de COVID-19 como la radiografía y diferentes técnicas de laboratorio como RT-PCR, que sigue siendo la investigación de elección. El distanciamiento social, la práctica de la higiene de manos y el uso de mascarilla son obligatorios para prevenir la enfermedad. Muchos de los ensayos de fármacos están en marcha con la reciente aprobación de remdesivir por parte de la FDA. Muy recientemente, se está llevando a cabo un programa de inmunización contra COVID-19 en muchos países del mundo. Sin embargo, la eficacia y seguridad de las vacunas aún no están completamente establecidas.

Palabras clave

Coronavirus; COVID-19; Enfermedad infecciosa emergente; Salud pública; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2

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Submitted date:
03/26/2021

Reviewed date:
04/17/2021

Accepted date:
05/17/2021

Publication date:
05/17/2021

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