Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
https://iberoamjmed.com/article/doi/10.5281/zenodo.4429712
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Review

A Systematic Review of the Calcium Content of the Normal Human Prostate Gland

Vladimir Zaichick

Downloads: 0
Views: 352

Abstract

Introduction: There is much lack of knowledge concerning most prostatic malfunction, especially the reasons and detailed nature of its pathologies. In spite of advances in medical science, the differential diagnosis of prostatic pathologies has steadily increased in complexity and controversy. A proposal has been made that prostatic calcium (Ca) content determinations may aid in resolving these issues for prostate disorders and especially as an indicator of its carcinoma risk. As a result many measurements of normal prostatic Ca have been made.
Materials and methods: Here we analyze data published concerning Ca prostatic levels in healthy subjects. In all 1911 items in the literature of the years dating back to 1921 were identified in the following databases: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science and ELSEVIER-EMBASE. This data was subject to an analysis employing both the “range” and “median” of means. In this way the disparate nature of published Ca content of normal prostates was evaluated. From the papers examined, 36 were selected for the objective analysis of data from their 1357 healthy patients..
Results: On a wet mass basis prostatic Ca levels spanned the interval from 73 mg/kg to 1280 mg/kg with 360 mg/kg as the median of their means. It is accepted that the prostatic Ca content is contingent on a wide variety of aspects of the host’s milieu, including androgen levels, zone of human prostate sampled, relative amounts of different types of prostatic tissue studied, Ca content of food and drink, Ca supplement intake, age, and the method of analysis.
Conclusions: The data encompassed a wide range of values and the sample was small, hence it is advisable that further studies be performed.

Keywords

Calcium; Human prostate; Normal prostatic tissue; Biomarkers

References

1. Nickel JC. Prostatitis. Can Urol Assoc J. 2011;5(5):306-15. doi: 10.5489/cuaj.11211.
2. Lim KB. Epidemiology of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia. Asian J Urol. 2017;4(3):148-151. doi: 10.1016/j.ajur.2017.06.004.
3. Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(6):394-424. doi: 10.3322/caac.21492.
4. Sharma S, Zapatero-Rodríguez J, O'Kennedy R. Prostate cancer diagnostics: Clinical challenges and the ongoing need for disruptive and effective diagnostic tools. Biotechnol Adv. 2017;35(2):135-149. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2016.11.009.
5. Avtsyn AP, Dunchik VN, Zhavoronkov AA, Zaĭchik VE, Sviridova TV. [Histological structure of the prostate and its zinc content at various ages]. Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol. 1981;81(11):76-83.
6. Zaichick V. INAA and EDXRF applications in the age dynamics assessment of Zn content and distribution in the normal human prostate. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2004;262:229-34. doi: 10.1023/B:JRNC.0000040879.45030.4f.
7. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. The effect of age on Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, and Na mass fraction in pediatric and young adult prostate glands investigated by neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;82:145-51. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2013.07.035.
8. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. INAA application in the assessment of Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn mass fraction in pediatric and young adult prostate glands. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2013;298:1559-66. doi: 10.1007/s10967-013-2554-3.
9. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. NAA-SLR and ICP-AES application in the assessment of mass fraction of 19 chemical elements in pediatric and young adult prostate glands. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;156(1-3):357-66. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9826-1.
10. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Use of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace elements in pediatric and young adult prostate. Am J Analyt Chem. 2013 4:696-706. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2013.412084.
11. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Relations of bromine, iron, rubidium, strontium, and zinc content to morphometric parameters in pediatric and nonhyperplastic young adult prostate glands. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;157(3):195-204. doi: 10.1007/s12011-014-9890-1.
12. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Relations of the neutron activation analysis data to morphometric parameters in pediatric and nonhyperplastic young adult prostate glands. Adv Biomed Sci Engin. 2014;1:26-42.
13. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Relations of the Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, and Zn mass fractions to morphometric parameters in pediatric and nonhyperplastic young adult prostate glands. Biometals. 2014;27(2):333-48. doi: 10.1007/s10534-014-9716-9.
14. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. The distribution of 54 trace elements including zinc in pediatric and nonhyperplastic young adult prostate gland tissues. J Clin Lab Invest Updates. 2014;2(1):1-15.
15. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Androgen-dependent chemical elements of prostate gland. Androl Gynecol: Curr Res 2014;2:2.
16. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Differences and relationships between morphometric parameters and zinc content in nonhyperplastic and hyperplastic prostate glands. Br J Med & Med Res. 2015;8:692-706. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2015/17572.
17. Zaichick V, Zaichick S, Rossmann M. Intracellular calcium excess as one of the main factors in the etiology of prostate cancer. AIMS Mol Sci 2016;3:635-47.
18. Dunchik V, Zherbin E, Zaichick V, Leonov A, Sviridova T. Method for differential diagnostics of prostate malignant and benign tumours. Russian patent (Author’s Certificate No 764660, priority of invention 27.10.1977). Discoveries, Inventions, Commercial Models, Trade Marks 1980;35:13.
19. Zaichick VYe, Sviridova TV, Zaichick SV. Zinc in the human prostate gland: normal, hyperplastic and cancerous. Int Urol Nephrol. 1997;29(5):565-74. doi: 10.1007/BF02552202.
20. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Trace element levels in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. J Cancer Ther. 2017;8:131-45.
21. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of selected chemical element contents in prostatic tissue as markers of malignancy. Hematol Med Oncol. 2016;1(2):1-8 doi: 10.15761/HMO.1000109.
22. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of Zn/trace element contents in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. Cancer Rep Rev. 2017;1(1):1-7. doi: 10.15761/CRR.1000105.
23. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of selenium/trace element contents in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. J Tumor Med Prev. 2017;1(2):555556.
24. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of rubidium/trace element contents in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. Can Res Clin Oncol. 2017;1:13-21.
25. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of cadmium/trace element contents in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. Canc Therapy & Oncol Int J. 2017;4(1):555626. doi: 10.19080/CTOIJ.2017.04.555626.
26. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of cobalt/trace element contents in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. Int J Cancer Epid & Res. 2017;1:21-27.
27. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of calcium/trace elements as prostate cancer markers. J Oncol Res Ther. 2017;4:J116.
28. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of Mg/trace element contents in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. SAJ Canc Sci. 2017;2(1):102.
29. Zaichick V. Medical elementology as a new scientific discipline. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2006;269:303-9. doi: 10.1007/s10967-006-0383-3.
30. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(2):203-10. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0586.
31. Rowland GW, Schwartz GG, John EM, Ingles SA. Protective effects of low calcium intake and low calcium absorption vitamin D receptor genotype in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22(1):16-24. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0922-T.
32. Aune D, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, et al. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(1):87-117. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.067157.
33. Wilson KM, Shui IM, Mucci LA, Giovannucci E. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-y follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(1):173-83. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088716.
34. Carruthers C, Suntzeff V. THE ROLE OF CALCIUM IN CARCINOGENESIS SUMMARY. Science. 1944;99(2569):245-7. doi: 10.1126/science.99.2569.245-a.
35. Vanden Abeele F, Shuba Y, Roudbaraki M, Lemonnier L, Vanoverberghe K, Mariot P, et al. Store-operated Ca2+ channels in prostate cancer epithelial cells: function, regulation, and role in carcinogenesis. Cell Calcium. 2003;33(5-6):357-73. doi: 10.1016/s0143-4160(03)00049-6.
36. Wang L, Xu M, Li Z, Shi M, Zhou X, Jiang X, et al. Calcium and CaSR/IP3R in prostate cancer development. Cell Biosci 2018;8:16. doi: 10.1186/s13578-018-0217-3.
37. Ardura JA, Álvarez-Carrión L, Gutiérrez-Rojas I, Alonso V. Role of Calcium Signaling in Prostate Cancer Progression: Effects on Cancer Hallmarks and Bone Metastatic Mechanisms. Cancers (Basel). 2020;12(5):1071. doi: 10.3390/cancers12051071.
38. ICRP. Report of Committee II on Permissible Dose for Internal Radiation. ICRP Publication 2. London: Pergamon Press; 1960.
39. Zakutinsky DI, Parfyenov YuD, Selivanova LN. Data book on the radioactive isotopes toxicology. Moscow: State Publishing House of Medical Literature; 1962.
40. TIPTON IH, COOK MJ. Trace elements in human tissue. II. Adult subjects from the United States. Health Phys. 1963;9:103-45. doi: 10.1097/00004032-196302000-00002.
41. Schroeder HA, Nason AP, Tipton IH, Balassa JJ. Essential trace metals in man: zinc. Relation to environmental cadmium. J Chronic Dis. 1967;20(4):179-210. doi: 10.1016/0021-9681(67)90002-1.
42. Hienzsch E, Schneider HJ, Anke M. [Comparative studies of the number and amount of trace elements of the normal prostate, prostate adenoma and prostate carcinoma]. Z Urol Nephrol. 1970;63(7):543-6.
43. Schneider H-J, Anke M, Holm W. The inorganic components of testicle, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate and ejaculate of young men. Int Urol Nephrol. 1970;2:419-27. doi: 10.1007/BF02081698.
44. Soman SD, Joseph KT, Raut SJ, Mulay CD, Parameshwaran M, Panday VK. Studies on major and trace element content in human tissues. Health Phys. 1970;19(5):641-56. doi: 10.1097/00004032-197011000-00006.
45. Holm W, Schneider HJ, Anke M. [Mineral content of the ejaculate and its relationship to larger amounts and trace elements in the prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis and testis]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1971;25(5):811-5.
46. Forssén A. Inorganic elements in the human body. I. Occurrence of Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cs, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Sn, Sr, Y and Zn in the human body. Ann Med Exp Biol Fenn. 1972;50(3):99-162.
47. Schroeder HA, Tipton IH, Nason AP. Trace metals in man: strontium and barium. J Chronic Dis. 1972;25(9):491-517. doi: 10.1016/0021-9681(72)90150-6.
48. Kwiatek WM, Hanson AL, Paluszkiewicz C, Gałka M, Gajda M, Cichocki T. Application of SRIXE and XANES to the determination of the oxidation state of iron in prostate tissue sections. J Alloys Compd. 2004;362:83-7. doi: 10.1016/S0925-8388(03)00566-8.
49. Kwiatek WM, Banas A, Gajda M, Gałka M, Pawlicki B, Falkenberg G, et al. Cancerous tissues analyzed by SRIXE. J Alloys Compd. 2005;401:173-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2005.02.070.
50. Guntupalli JN, Padala S, Gummuluri AV, Muktineni RK, Byreddy SR, Sreerama L, et al. Trace elemental analysis of normal, benign hypertrophic and cancerous tissues of the prostate gland using the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007;16(2):108-15. doi: 10.1097/01.cej.0000228409.75976.b6.
51. Sapota A, Darago A, Taczalski J, Kilanowicz A. Disturbed homeostasis of zinc and other essential elements in the prostate gland dependent on the character of pathological lesions. Biometals. 2009;22(6):1041-9. doi: 10.1007/s10534-009-9255-y.
52. Tohno S, Kobayashi M, Shimizu H, Tohno Y, Suwannahoy P, Azuma C, et al. Age-related changes of the concentrations of select elements in the prostates of Japanese. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009;127(3):211-27. doi: 10.1007/s12011-008-8241-5.
53. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. INAA application in the age dynamics assessment of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, and Na content in the normal human prostate. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 2011;288(1):197-202. doi: 10.1007/s10967-010-0927-4.
54. Zaichick V, Nosenko S, Moskvina I. The effect of age on 12 chemical element contents in the intact prostate of adult men investigated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;147(1-3):49-58. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9294-4.
55. Leitão RG, Palumbo A, Souza PAVR, Pereira GR, Canellas CGL, Anjos MJ, et al. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Radiat Phys Chem. 2014;95:62-4. doi: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2012.12.044.
56. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. INAA application in the assessment of chemical element mass fractions in adult and geriatric prostate glands. Appl Radiat Isot. 2014;90:62-73. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.03.010.
57. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Determination of trace elements in adults and geriatric prostate combining neutron activation with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Open Journal of Biochemistry. 2014;1(2):16-33.
58. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. Prostatic tissue level of some androgen dependent and independent trace elements in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Androl Gynecol: Curr Res 2015;3:3.
59. Zaichick V. The Variation with Age of 67 Macro- and Microelement Contents in Nonhyperplastic Prostate Glands of Adult and Elderly Males Investigated by Nuclear Analytical and Related Methods. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015;168(1):44-60. doi: 10.1007/s12011-015-0342-3.
60. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-related changes in concentration and histological distribution of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, and Na in nonhyperplastic prostate of adults. Eur J Biol Med Sci Res. 2016;4(2):31-48.
61. Zaichick V., Zaichick S. Age-related changes in concentration and histological distribution of 18 chemical elements in nonhyperplastic prostate of adults. World J Pharm Med Res. 2016;2(4):5-18.
62. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Age-related changes in concentration and histological distribution of 54 trace elements in nonhyperplastic prostate of adults. Int Arch Urol Complic. 2016; 2(2):019. doi: 10.23937/2469-5742/1510019.
63. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. The Comparison between the Contents and Interrelationships of 17 Chemical Elements in Normal and Cancerous Prostate Gland. JPS Open Access 2016;1(1):1-10.
64. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Prostatic tissue level of some major and trace elements in patients with BPH. J J Nephro Urol.2016;3(1):1-10.
65. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Distinguishing malignant from benign prostate using content of 17 chemical elements in prostatic tissue. Integr Cancer Sci Therap. 2016;3(5):579-87. doi: 10.15761/ICST.1000208.
66. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Chemical element contents in normal and benign hyperplastic prostate. Ann Mens Health Wellness. 2017;1(2):1006.
67. Zaichick V. Differences between 66 chemical element contents in normal and cancerous prostate. J Anal Oncol. 2017;6:37-56. doi: 10.6000/1927-7229.2017.06.02.1.
68. Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Comparison of 66 chemical element contents in normal and benign hyperplastic prostate. Asian J Urol. 2019;6(3):275-289. doi: 10.1016/j.ajur.2017.11.009.
69. Isaacs JT. Prostatic structure and function in relation to the etiology of prostatic cancer. Prostate. 1983;4(4):351-66. doi: 10.1002/pros.2990040405.
70. Leissner KH, Fjelkegård B, Tisell LE. Concentration and content of zinc in the human prostate. Invest Urol. 1980;18(1):32-5.
71. Woodard HQ, White DR. The composition of body tissues. Br J Radiol. 1986;59(708):1209-18. doi: 10.1259/0007-1285-59-708-1209.
72. Arnold WN, Thrasher JB. Selenium concentration in the prostate. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003;91(3):277-80. doi: 10.1385/BTER:91:3:277.
73. Saltzman BE, Gross SB, Yeager DW, Meiners BG, Gartside PS. Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers. Environ Res. 1990;52(2):126-45. doi: 10.1016/s0013-9351(05)80248-8.
74. Zaichick V. Sampling, sample storage and preparation of biomaterials for INAA in clinical medicine, occupational and environmental health. In: Harmonization of Health-Related Environmental Measurements Using Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques. Vienna: IAEA; 1997:123-33.
75. Zaichick V. Losses of chemical elements in biological samples under the dry ashing process. Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow). 2004 5(3):17-22.
76. Burgos MH. Biochemical and functional properties related to sperm metabolism and fertility. In: Brandes D, editors. Male accessory sex organs. New York: Academic press; 1974:151-60.
77. Homonnai ZT, Matzkin H, Fainman N, Paz G, Kraicer PF. The cation composition of the seminal plasma and prostatic fluid and its correlation to semen quality. Fertil Steril. 1978;29(5):539-42. doi: 10.1016/s0015-0282(16)43281-4.
78. Zaneveld LJ, Tauber PF. Contribution of prostatic fluid components to the ejaculate. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1981;75A:265-77.
79. Kavanagh JP, Darby C, Costello CB, Chowdhury SD. Zinc in post prostatic massage (VB3) urine samples: a marker of prostatic secretory function and indicator of bacterial infection. Urol Res. 1983;11(4):167-70. doi: 10.1007/BF00256365.
80. Daniels GF, Grayhack JT. Physiology of prostatic secretion. In: Chisholm GD, Fair WR, editors. Scientific Foundation in Urology. Chicago: Heinemann Medical Books; 1990:351-8.
81. Romics I, Bach D. Zn, Ca and Na levels in the prostatic secretion of patients with prostatic adenoma. Int Urol Nephrol. 1991;23(1):45-9. doi: 10.1007/BF02549727.
82. Van Hemelrijck M, Michaelsson K, Nelson WG, Kanarek N, Dobs A, Platz EA, et al. Association of serum calcium with serum sex steroid hormones in men in NHANES III. Aging Male. 2013;16(4):151-8. doi: 10.3109/13685538.2013.772133.
83. Deering RE, Bigler SA, King J, Choongkittaworn M, Aramburu E, Brawer MK. Morphometric quantitation of stroma in human benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 1994;44(1):64-70. doi: 10.1016/s0090-4295(94)80011-1.
84. Tvedt KE, Kopstad G, Haugen OA, Halgunset J. Subcellular concentrations of calcium, zinc, and magnesium in benign nodular hyperplasia of the human prostate: X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Cancer Res. 1987;47(1):323-8.


Submitted date:
11/24/2020

Reviewed date:
12/31/2020

Accepted date:
01/05/2021

Publication date:
01/09/2021

5ff9d7280e88259f3d02f355 iberoamericanjm Articles
Links & Downloads

Iberoam J Med

Share this page
Page Sections