Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine
Iberoamerican Journal of Medicine

A review on the evolution of immunotherapy in bladder carcinoma

Milena Gulinac, Dorian Dikov, Simeon Lichev, Tsvetelina Velikova

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Bladder cancer is one of the most significant genitourinary cancer characterized by a high rate of recurrences, morbidity, and mortality in a large number of patients. Over the years, numerous therapeutic approaches have been developed. For more than 40 years, the most comprehensive method for the treatment of non-invasive and invasive bladder cancer has been the use of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), giving a successful effect in a high percentage of patients. However, due to the genetic instability of cancer and the desire to develop personalized therapy, therapeutic approaches are continually evolving and improving. This review will discuss the therapeutic evolution and directions of future research to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of bladder carcinoma.


Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; Bladder cancer; Checkpoint inhibitors; Immunotherapy urothelial carcinoma


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